Sentence Fragments and Run-Ons: Pacing Drill

Ready to try a quick 5-question pacing drill for problems involving Sentence Fragments and Run-On Sentences?

Set your timer for 12.5 minutes if you’re still new to Sentence Correction, 10 minutes if you’ve done a good amount of review and feel confident in your knowledge of Sentence Fragment and Run-On Sentences,  7.5 minutes if you want to give yourself a challenge, ot 5 minutes if you’re a Sentence Correction rock star!

Answer ALL 5 of the following questions, then read through the explanations.

Question #1

In the late nineteenth century, the idea that women held an intrinsic right to vote as American citizens was foreign to most males; in our modern time, however, most males accept it as a foregone conclusion.

(A) to most males; in our modern time, however, most males accept it as a foregone conclusion.

(B) to most males, in our modern time, henceforth, most males accept it as a foregone conclusion.

(C) to most males; in our modern time, although, most males are concluding of it as foregone.

(D) for many males; in our modern time, though, most males accepted it as a foregone conclusion.

(E) for many males; in our modern time, however, most males will accept it as a foregone conclusion.
Question #1 Solution:

The semi-colon and the contrast transition “however” correctly establish the meaning of this sentence, which the present-tense “accept” is appropriate.

Choice (B) creates a run-on sentence by replacing the semicolon with a comma. Without a connecting conjunction—and, or, but, etc.—two independent clauses must be joined by a semicolon or written as two separate sentences in order to avoid creating a comma splice or a run-on. In addition the word “henceforth” not imply the proper contrasting meaning.

Choice (C) uses the very awkward construction: “are concluding of it,” and “although,” though used to indicate contrast, is used awkwardly here. Choice (D) contains an error in tense. The sentence progresses from the past to the present, so the verb in the second clause should be the present-tense “accept.” Choice (E) incorrectly uses the future tense “will accent.” The phrase “modern time” indicates the action takes place in the present. The correct answer is (A).
Question #2

That his presentation on compound interest initiatives was criticized harshly by the members of the bank’s board who examined his proposal with relative indifference came as a shock to the low-level executive.

(A) That his presentation on compound interest initiatives was criticized harshly by the members of the bank’s board who examined his proposal with relative indifference came as a shock to the low-level executive.

(B) The low-level executive was shocked that his presented proposal on compound interest initiatives was criticized harshly by the members of the bank’s board who examined it relatively indifferently.

(C) The fact that his presentation on compound interest initiations was criticized harshly by the members of the bank’s board, which had examined it with relative indifference, came as a shock to the low-level executive.

(D) Shocked that his presentation on compound interest initiatives was criticized harshly, the members of the bank’s board examined the proposal by the low-level executive with relative indifference.

(E) Examining it with relative indifference, the bank’s board examined the proposal on compound interest initiatives by the low-level executive with harsh criticism, shocking him.

Question #2 Solution:

There is nothing incorrect with the existing sentence in (A). Don’t confuse complex or unusual sentence structure with grammatical error. “That” is correctly used. Choice (C) may have been tempting, but it’s less concise and contains several drawn-out clauses. Choice (D) contains a modification error. As written, it implies the “board” was “shocked” but it’s the “low-level executive” who is shocked. (B) and (E) are wordy and awkward. In (B), there should also be a comma before the word “who” since it creates a new clause. In (E), it is also unclear what “it” refers to. We cannot introduce a pronoun without a clear, logical antecedent. The correct answer is (A).

Question #3

The question-at-hand brought up and then debated by the local housing council which was whether or not to require a minimum lot size for any home built after 1978.

(A) which was whether or not to require a minimum lot size for any home built

(B) was whether or not to require a minimum lot size for any house they build

(C) was whether or not to require a minimum lot size for any house built

(D) was the requirement of whether or not a minimum lot size was needed for any house

(E) whether or not to require a minimum lot size for any house built

Question #3 Solution:

The original sentence is a fragment; even though it has multiple verbs and verb forms it does not express a clear thought. (E) is also a fragment. We must eliminate “which” to help create an independent clause. This is done by choice (C). Choice (B) removes “which,” but it has a pronoun, “they” with no clear antecedent. If you chose (D), this option is unnecessarily wordy. A grammatically correct, less wordy option (such as (C)), will always be preferable to an option such as (D). The correct answer is (C).

Question #4

The concept of a wireless radio in every room of one’s home was viewed as beyond luxurious at one point, at first as a result of the fact that early wireless sets were extremely pricey and, in more current times, because they seemed nonessential.

(A) at first as a result of the fact that early wireless sets were extremely pricey and, in more current times, because

(B) at first this was because early wireless sets were extremely pricey, and in more current times due to the fact

(C) at first because early wireless sets were extremely pricey and in more current times because

(D) at first being extremely pricey, in more current times

(E) at first because they were extremely pricey, but then in more current times because

Question #4 Solution:

Remember on the GMAT that not all lengthy answer choices will be incorrect, but always check for a more concise version. (C) is the most concise version of the sentence that does not introduce additional errors. (B) and (D) create run-ons. (B) and (D) do this by making the second clause independent. Both “at first this was because…” and “at first because…” could stand on their own as complete sentences. Independent clauses cannot be separated by commas. They should be separated by semicolons. (E) contains an error in meaning. The word “but” in (E) creates a contrast between the clauses, but both clauses support the same idea (radios in every room were seem as a luxury), so not contrast is needed. The correct answer is (C).

Question #5

Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly

(B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Question #5 Solution:

(A) is a sentence fragment. What’s the subject? What’s the predicate verb? This sentence is a mess. We don’t know who is doing the action. Logically it should be the scientists, but “scientists” is in a dependent clause and not independent. This sentence has tried to join two dependent clauses together to make a sentence.  (C) is the correct answer because it gives us a subject (“it”) and creates a stand-alone independent clause.

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Sentence Correction: The Importance of Pacing Drills

If you’re serious about GMAT Verbal and within 45 days of your Test Day, you should be doing pacing drills at least every other day. Most students have a hard time coming up with their own pacing drills, which is understandable. How much time should you give yourself to start? When should you start trimming seconds off? Should you time individual questions only, or groups of questions? I recommend you alternate between 5 and 10 question pacing drills once you’ve got a good Sentence Correction strategy going. If you only do individual questions, you won’t flex your muscles to hit those 14-15 SC questions on Test Day.

Be sure to regularly incorporate pacing exercises, both concept-specific and mixed-concept, in your study sessions. You don’t want the only time you work under pacing pressure to be when you’re doing a full-length GMAT CAT. Sentence Correction success lies in high achieving accuracy in a short amount of time. Start with the “Level 1” pacing drills as described below, then move on to the higher levels once your accuracy is above 80% at each level. For example, if you tried to complete Level 6, you shouldn’t move on to Level 7 until you were able to get 8/10 or more questions correct in 20 minutes on at least three separate occasions.

Level 1 – 5 questions in 12.5 minutes
Level 2 – 10 questions in 25 minutes
Level 3 – 5 questions in 11.25 minutes
Level 4 – 10 questions in 22.5 minutes
Level 5 – 5 questions in 10 minutes
Level 6 – 10 questions in 20 minutes
Level 7 – 5 questions in 8.75 minutes
Level 8 – 10 questions in 17.5 minutes
Level 9 – 5 question in 7.5 minutes
Level 10 – 10 questions in 15 minutes
Level 11 – 5 questions in 6.25 minutes
Level 12 – 10 questions in 12.5 minutes
Level 13 – 5 questions in 5 minutes
Level 14 – 10 questions in 10 minutes

Once you’re able to complete a wide variety of Sentence Correction questions in less than 1 minute per question with above 80% accuracy overall, you’re much less likely to lose accuracy during a full-length CAT! It may take you a long time to get there (or you may never get there), but at least these sequential drills will allow you to slowly shave some precious seconds off your Sentence Correction time!

Stay tuned for more posts featuring 5 and 10 question Sentence Correction questions grouped by concept!